I have posted a new blog post to including a couple of editions I forgot to include on this one. Please see the 27th of June 2019 entry.



After reflecting on Pathological Demand Avoidance ethics and re-evaluating the evidence to consider if DAP should be excluded from the autism spectrum, I now refer to it as Demand Avoidance Phenomena (DAP). These are for various factors, that I go into here and this talk does have recordings:


I am attempting to use DAP where possible in all my current work. Unfortunately it is not always possible for me to use DAP due to editorial preference.


This entry, repeats wider information published previously. There have been 9 new articles published and an old article from 2011 being added. The latter is Wing, Gould and Gillberg (2011), as it mentions DAP, discusses how it is almost impossible to subtype autism and the authors argue it is better to take a detailed developmental history over assigning autism subtypes. The 9 new articles include: 3 new book reviews; an article with a DAPer perspective; a commentary article; 2 new research papers and other relevant scholarship.


Updated List of DAP Articles.

1 2003 Newson et al. Pathological demand avoidance syndrome: a necessary distinction within the PDD. Archives of Disease in Childhood.
2 2003 Garralda. Pathological demand avoidance syndrome or psychiatric disorder? Archives of Disease in Childhood.
3 2005 Jones. Developing independence through the use of a colour-coded system with PDA. Good Autism Practice.
4 2007 Christie. Pathological Demand Avoidance Syndrome: Guidelines for Good Practice Good Autism Practice.
5 2011 Gould & Ashton-Smith. Missed diagnnosis or misdiagnosis? Girls and women on the autism spectrum. Good Autism Practice.
6 2011 Carlile. Helping your child with PDA to play: eight strategies for PDA. Good Autism Practice.
7 2011 Wing, Gould & Gillberg. ASD in the DSM-V: Better or worse than the DSM-IV? Research in Dev Disabilities
8 2012 Harvey The Educational Issues for the child with a diagnosis of Pathological Demand Avoidance Good Autism Practice.
9 2012 Eaton & Banting. Adult diagnosis of pathological demand avoidance – subsequent care planning Learning Disabilities Offending
10 2013 Milton. ‘Natures answer to over-conformity’: deconstructing PDA. Book chapter in 2017. Autism Experts.
11 2013 Sinson. Understanding pathological demand avoidance in children: book review. Educational Psychology in Practice
12 2013 Grahame. Understanding pathological demand avoidance in children: book review. Child Adolescent Ment Health
13 2014 Saunders. Understanding pathological demand avoidance in children: book review. Int Journal of Primary Ed
14 2014 O’Nions et al. Development of the EDA-Q for PDA traits measurement. Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
15 2014 O’Nions et al. Pathological demand avoidance: Exploring the behavioural profile. Autism.
16 2014 Gillberg. Public display of affection or pathological demand avoidance? Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
17 2015 Gillberg et al. PDA: a general population study in the Faroe Islands Eur Child Adolescent Psychiatry.
18 2015 Reilly et al. PDA in a population cohort of children with epilepsy: Four case studies. Research in Dev Disabilities.
19 2016 O’Nions et al. Identifying PDA using the DISCO. Eur Child Adolescent Psychiatry.
20 2016 Langton & Frederickson Mapping the educational experiences of children with PDA. Journal of Research of SEN.
21 2016 Davis Can I tell you about PDA: book review. Good Autism Practice.
22 2016 Langton and Frederickson Parents’ experiences of professionals’ involvement for children with PDA. International Journal Dev Dis.
23 2017 Trundle et al. Differentiating between PDA and antisocial personality disorder: a case study. Learning Disabilities Offending
24 2017 Woods. PDA: my thoughts on looping effects and commodification of autism. Disability and Society.
25 2017 O’Nions, Happe and Viding. Extreme/’pathological’ demand avoidance. BPS DECP Debate 160.
26 2017 Brede et al. Excluded from school: Autistic students exclusion and re-integration experiences. Autism & Dev Language Impairments.
27 2017 Flackhill et al. Coventry Grid Interview: Exploring autism and attachment difficulties. Good Autism Practice.
28 2018 O’Nions et al. PDA: Dimensions of difficulty in children with Autism + PDA Traits. Child and Adol Mental Health
29 2018 Ogundele Behavioural and emotional disorders:  brief overview for paediatricians World Journal Peadiatricians.
30 2018 Philip & Contejean. The syndrome of pathological avoidance of requests: translated into English. Neuropsych Child & Adolescent
31 2018 Green et al. Pathological Demand Avoidance: symptoms but not a syndrome Lancet Child & Adol Health
32 2018 Russell. Being Misunderstood: Experiences of PDA Profile of ASD. Self Published: The PDA Society.
33 2018 O’Nions et al. Demand avoidance is not necessarily defiance. Lancet Child & Adol Health
34 2018 Green et al. Demand avoidance is not necessarily defiance – Author’s reply. Lancet Child & Adol Health
35 2018 Egan, Lineberg & O’Nions The Measurement of Adult Pathological Demand Avoidance Traits Journal Autism & Devel Disorders
36 2018 Malik & Baird. PDA – what’s in a name? Dimensions of difficulty,ASD and features of EDA/ PDA. Child and Adol Mental Health
37 2018 Woods. Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA): Book Chapter. Encyclopedia of ASDs.
38 2018 O’Nions & Neons. Conceptualising demand avoidance in an ASD context – Author’s response. Child and Adol Mental Health
39 2018 Woods. PDA by PDAers, from anxiety to avoidance and masking to meltdowns: Book Review. Disability & Society.
40 2018 PDA Action. Failed by the System: EDA/ PDA in adults. Self Published: PDA Action.
41 2018 Eaton et al 2018. Modification of the Coventry Grid Interview  to include PDA. Good Autism Practice.
42 2018 Summerhill & Collett Multi-agency assessment pathway for children and young people thought to have a PDA. Good Autism Practice.
43 2018 Lyle & Leatherland Preventing school exclusion: a case study of an  autistic child with ADHD and a PDA profile. Good Autism Practice.
44 2018 Woods. A guide to mental health issues in girls and young women on the autism spectrum: Book Review. Good Autism Practice.
45 2018 Linton et al 2018. Retinal burns from laser pointers: a risk in children with behavioural problems. Eye.
46 2019 Falk. Non-complicit: Revisiting Hans Asperger’s Career in Nazi-era Vienna Journal Autism & Devel Disorders
47 2019 Stuart et al Intolerance of uncertainty and anxiety for extreme demand avoidance. Child & Adolescent Mental Health
48 2019 Finley. Supporting Students with Autism and PDA: A Personal Perspective from a 14 Year Old Student. Good Autism Practice.
49 2019 Bradley A guide to mental health issues in girls and young women on the autism spectrum: Book Review. Good Autism Practice.
50 2019 Woods. Me and My PDA: A guide to PDA for young people: Book Review. Good Autism Practice.
51 2019 Woods. PDA Paradox: Highs and Lows of a little known part of the Spectrum: Book Review. Good Autism Practice.
52 2019 Orn, Locke & Locke. PDA: A Transactional Behavior Analytic Model Without Pathology In Norwegian. Norsk Tidsskrift for Atferdsanalyse
53 2019 Woods. PDA: Is it time to develop more inclusive pedagogies? Autonomy, Critical Autism Journal.


*The articles that have autistic authors are marked by using bold and italics.


Journals where DAPers can publish their own articles.

In order for DAPers to have their work published they must meet the aims & scopes of the journal, along with their work being to academic standard. The list of journals which provide spaces for autistic persons to get their voice into the academic literature are:


General advise when writing an article and choosing an appropriate journal, is to be aware of the audience each journal has and the politics of the journal. Good Autism Practice appears to be an important outlet for DAP literature, which is reflected in it publishing 30.2% of DAP articles and readers are explicitly recommended to read it the key DAP text book (Christie et al 2012). This could be due to Good Autism Practice target audience being clinicians and parents; that are 2 stakeholder groups pushing the growth in DAP (Christie 2007; Christie et al 2012). Picking a suitable journal for your work is crucial step in the process of getting an article published, however it is hard work and the feedback that you will receive may appear harsh. Most reviewers’ feedback is there to improve the article, so it is worth acting on it where possible. Contrastingly, sometimes reviewers will reject an article because it goes against their views or agenda, which is why picking an appropriate journal is pivotal to getting an article published. I look forward to reading future DAPer authored articles.


Plans for future blog posts.

I have a few blog posts lined for the next coming months;  such as further updates to the list the of published articles, in particular I have been informed to expect my article Pathological Demand Avoidance: Is it time to move beyond the pathological need to not to develop more inclusive pedagogical practices? Is shortly to be published in Autonomy, the Critical Journal of Interdisciplinary Autism Studies. I plan a future blog post exploring how parts of the DAP community are acting like cult.


Latest DAP Research.

I have delivered 2 talks on Demand Avoidance Phenomena at recent Critical Disability Studies events:

  • An Updated Interest Based Account (Monotropism theory) & a Demand Avoidance Phenomenon discussion.


  • Demand Avoidance Phenomena (Pathological Demand Avoidance): an ethical challenge to its orthodoxy.


Two of these talks supplement the DAP deconstruction Critical Reflections on the Pathological Demand Avoidance debate: A response to The Practice MK blog and discussion, which can be accessed here:

Besides book reviews, I have 2 new articles published in the journal, Autonomy, the Critical Journal of Interdisciplinary Autism Studies. The first is a PDA one that was submitted 2 years ago. The second is co-authored with Dr Mitzi Waltz and was written last summer. These are:


Autism Policy and Practice Autistic-led good practice journal.
Here is a link to an open access good practice journal that I and others are restarting:

Journal’s editors are presently working hard for an August/ September publishing of the first edition.

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