This is a short blog post about my recent reflections on Demand Avoidance Phenomena (DAP, commonly called Pathological Demand Avoidance), and updating the list of published literature on DAP. Since my last blog post I have done 4 more threads covering a range of topics, mainly furthering concerns over the Help4Psychology  three additional DAP definitions. One of the threads provides an example of how the Help4Psychology DAP definitions are arbitrary, the other highlights how these definitions do not reflect modern understandings of DAP and how their clinical experience is insufficient to justify utilising these definitions. The 2 remaining threads are also important. The first explains how social demand avoidance behaviours in DAP are still manipulative and not “social strategic”, and this result is explained by the methodology of the study. The last thread contains my novel critique of the latest leaflet by the PDA Society. I have not posted them yet, mainly out of demand avoidance, but I am late posting an update to the list published literature.

There are 7 new articles published since the last update 7 months ago. A mix of research articles, commentaries and 2 non-specialist DAP articles. The later 2 articles are relevant to DAP, such as O’Connor & McNicholas (2020) provides another example of children and young persons internalising the main DAP discourse. I will provide links to my recent threads first before moving onto the updated published literature list. I am using a new diagram to display how I conceptualise DAP.

I also apologise for the formatting of this, it is the first time I have used the new blog publishing process; I am unsure of its new nuances.

Critique of Help4Psychology DAP definitions and other recent reflections.

Examples on how Help4Psychology DAP definitions are arbitrary in nature:

Reasons on why Help4Pscyhology DAP definitions do not comply with modern understandings and their clinical experience is insufficient justification to adopt their definitions:

I explain how “social strategic” result of O’Nions et al (2018) is due to their methodology, not because social demand avoidance behaviours in DAP are like this in nature:

Novel critique of PDA Society’s “What is PDA?” Booklet:

DAP articles timeline by year.

12003Newson et al.Pathological demand avoidance syndrome: a necessary distinction within the PDD.Archives of Disease in Childhood.
22003Garralda.Pathological demand avoidance syndrome or psychiatric disorder?Archives of Disease in Childhood.
32005Jones.Developing independence through the use of a colour-coded system with PDA.Good Autism Practice.
42007Christie.Pathological Demand Avoidance Syndrome: Guidelines for Good PracticeGood Autism Practice.
52011Gould & Ashton-Smith.Missed diagnnosis or misdiagnosis? Girls and women on the autism spectrum.Good Autism Practice.
62011Carlile.Helping your child with PDA to play: eight strategies for PDA.Good Autism Practice.
72011Wing, Gould & Gillberg.ASD in the DSM-V: Better or worse than the DSM-IV?Research in Dev Disabilities
82012HarveyThe Educational Issues for the child with a diagnosis of Pathological Demand AvoidanceGood Autism Practice.
92012Eaton & Banting.Adult diagnosis of pathological demand avoidance – subsequent care planningLearning Disabilities Offending
102013Milton.‘Natures answer to over-conformity’: deconstructing PDA. Book chapter in 2017.Autism Experts.
112013Sinson.Understanding pathological demand avoidance in children: book review.Educational Psychology in Practice
122013Grahame.Understanding pathological demand avoidance in children: book review.Child Adolescent Ment Health
132014Saunders.Understanding pathological demand avoidance in children: book review.Int Journal of Primary Ed
142014O’Nions et al.Development of the EDA-Q for PDA traits measurement.Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
152014O’Nions et al.Pathological demand avoidance: Exploring the behavioural profile.Autism.
162014Gillberg.Public display of affection or pathological demand avoidance?Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
172015Gillberg et al.PDA: a general population study in the Faroe IslandsEur Child Adolescent Psychiatry.
182015Reilly et al.PDA in a population cohort of children with epilepsy: Four case studies.Research in Dev Disabilities.
192016O’Nions et al.Identifying PDA using the DISCO.Eur Child Adolescent Psychiatry.
202016Langton & FredericksonMapping the educational experiences of children with PDA.Journal of Research of SEN.
212016DavisCan I tell you about PDA: book review.Good Autism Practice.
222016Langton and FredericksonParents’ experiences of professionals’ involvement for children with PDA.International Journal Dev Dis.
232017Trundle et al.Differentiating between PDA and antisocial personality disorder: a case study.Learning Disabilities Offending
242017Woods.PDA: my thoughts on looping effects and commodification of autism.Disability and Society.
252017O’Nions, Happe and Viding.Extreme/’pathological’ demand avoidance.BPS DECP Debate 160.
262017Brede et al.Excluded from school: Autistic students exclusion and re-integration experiences.Autism & Dev Language Impairments.
272017Flackhill et al.Coventry Grid Interview: Exploring autism and attachment difficulties.Good Autism Practice.
282018O’Nions et al.PDA: Dimensions of difficulty in children with Autism + PDA Traits.Child and Adol Mental Health
292018OgundeleBehavioural and emotional disorders:  brief overview for paediatriciansWorld Journal Peadiatricians.
302018Philip & Contejean.The syndrome of pathological avoidance of requests: translated into English.Neuropsych Child & Adolescent
312018Green et al.Pathological Demand Avoidance: symptoms but not a syndromeLancet Child & Adol Health
322018Russell.Being Misunderstood: Experiences of PDA Profile of ASD.Self Published: The PDA Society.
332018O’Nions et al.Demand avoidance is not necessarily defiance.Lancet Child & Adol Health
342018Green et al.Demand avoidance is not necessarily defiance – Author’s reply.Lancet Child & Adol Health
352018Egan, Lineberg & O’NionsThe Measurement of Adult Pathological Demand Avoidance TraitsJournal Autism & Devel Disorders
362018Malik & Baird.PDA – what’s in a name? Dimensions of difficulty,ASD and features of EDA/ PDA.Child and Adol Mental Health
372018Woods.Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA): Book Chapter.Encyclopedia of ASDs.
382018O’Nions & Neons.Conceptualising demand avoidance in an ASD context – Author’s response.Child and Adol Mental Health
392018Woods.PDA by PDAers, from anxiety to avoidance and masking to meltdowns: Book Review.Disability & Society.
402018PDA Action.Failed by the System: EDA/ PDA in adults.Self Published: PDA Action.
412018Eaton et al 2018.Modification of the Coventry Grid Interview  to include PDA.Good Autism Practice.
422018Summerhill & CollettMulti-agency assessment pathway for children and young people thought to have a PDA.Good Autism Practice.
432018Lyle & LeatherlandPreventing school exclusion: a case study of an  autistic child with ADHD and a PDA profile.Good Autism Practice.
442018Woods.A guide to mental health issues in girls and young women on the autism spectrum: Book Review.Good Autism Practice.
452018Linton et al 2018.Retinal burns from laser pointers: a risk in children with behavioural problems.Eye.
462019Slaughter et al.Criminal Behavior and School Discipline in Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth with AutismJournal Autism & Devel Disorders
472019FidlerGirls who ‘can’t help won’t’: understanding the distinctive PDA profile & support approaches. Book chapter.Girls and Autism book.
482019Falk.Non-complicit: Revisiting Hans Asperger’s Career in Nazi-era ViennaJournal Autism & Devel Disorders
492019Kay.Research Meeting: Record of meeting held 08th January 2019.Self Published: PDA Society.
502019Stuart et alIntolerance of uncertainty and anxiety for extreme demand avoidance.Child & Adolescent Mental Health
512019Finley.Supporting Students with Autism and PDA: A Personal Perspective from a 14 Year Old Student.Good Autism Practice.
522019BradleyA guide to mental health issues in girls and young women on the autism spectrum: Book Review.Good Autism Practice.
532019Woods.Me and My PDA: A guide to PDA for young people: Book Review.Good Autism Practice.
542019Woods.PDA Paradox: Highs and Lows of a little known part of the Spectrum: Book Review.Good Autism Practice.
552019Orn, Locke & Locke.PDA: A Transactional Behavior Analytic Model Without Pathology In Norwegian.Norsk Tidsskrift for Atferdsanalyse
562019Woods.PDA: Is it time to develop more inclusive pedagogies?Autonomy, Critical Autism Journal.
572019O’Nions.Child behaviour and parenting strategies – a research update.Self-Published Blog.
582019WoodsDemand avoidance phenomena: circularity, integrity and validity – a commentary on the 2018 National Autistic Society PDA Conference.Good Autism Practice.
592019Woods et al.Empathy and a Personalised Approach in Autism.Journal Autism & Devel Disorders.
602019Peterson et al.Trauma and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Review, Proposed Treatment Adaptations and Future Directions.Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma.
612020Woods.Commentary: Demand Avoidance Phenomena, a manifold issue? Intolerance of uncertainty and anxiety as explanatory frameworks for extreme demand avoidance in children and adolescents – a commentary on Stuart et al. (2019)Child & Adolescent Mental Health.
622020Eaton.A Response to Wood’s paper – Demand Avoidance Phenomena: circularity, integrity and validity – a commentary on the 2018 National Autistic Society PDA Conference.Good Autism Practice.
632020Doyle et al.Mapping Experiences of Pathological Demand Avoidance in Ireland.Self-Published: Research Report.
642020O’Nions et al.Parenting Strategies Used by Parents of Children with ASD: Differential Links with Child Problem Behaviour.Journal Autism & Devel Disorders.
652020Moore.Pathological Demand Avoidance: What and Who are being pathologized and in whose interests?Global Studies of Childhood.
662020Green.Commentary: Anxiety and behaviour in and beyond ASD; does the idea of ‘PDA’ really help?Child & Adolescent Mental Health.
672020Grahame et al.Response: Anxiety and behaviour in and beyond ASD; does the idea of ‘PDA’ really help?Child & Adolescent Mental Health.
682020Grahame et al.Response: DAP: a manifold issue? Intolerance of uncertainty and anxiety as explanatory frameworks for extreme demand avoidance in children and adolescents.Child & Adolescent Mental Health.
692020OzsivadjianEditorial: Demand avoidance — pathological, extreme or oppositional?Child & Adolescent Mental Health.
702020O’Connor & McNicholas.Lived Experiences of Diagnostic Shifts in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Contexts: a Qualitative Interview Study CYP & Carers.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.
712020Woods.PDA and the DSM5: a response to Judy Eaton.Good Autism Practice.
722020Egan et al.Individual differences ADHD adult pathological demand avoidance and delinquency.Research in Developmental Disorders.
732020Cone.The Courage to Dream: A Beginning Psychotherapist Encounters Bion.British Journal of Psychotherapy.

Updated List of DAP Articles.

*The articles that have autistic authors are marked by using bold and italics.

Journals where DAPers can publish their own articles.

In order for DAPers to have their work published they must meet the aims & scopes of the journal, along with their work being to academic standard. The list of journals which provide spaces for autistic persons to get their voice into the academic literature are:

General advise when writing an article and choosing an appropriate journal, is to be aware of the audience each journal has and the politics of the journal. Good Autism Practice appears to be an important outlet for DAP literature. Picking a suitable journal for your work is crucial step in the process of getting an article published, however it is hard work and the feedback that you will receive may appear harsh. Most reviewers’ feedback is there to improve the article, so it is worth acting on it where possible. Contrastingly, sometimes reviewers will reject an article because it goes against their views or agenda, which is why picking an appropriate journal is pivotal to getting an article published. I look forward to reading future DAPer authored articles.

My latest research.

I have recently had a commentary article published in Good Autism Practice:

–           Pathological Demand Avoidance and the DSM-5: a rebuttal to Judy Eaton’s response.

Additionally, I and others have had a short essay published in Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders:

–           Empathy and a Personalised Approach in Autism.

A book chapter describing what the sub-discipline Critical Autism Studies is, I lead authored it and it can be found here and it is currently free to access:

Autism Policy and Practice Call For Papers.

The autistic-led good practice journal, Autism Policy and Practice has published its first edition under the current editor team. This can be accessed via the link below:

The journal currently has a call for papers on Participatory Autism Research Collective 2020 Conference edition:

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